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Full text of "West Virginia timber products output, 2000"

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^99.9 F7622Uf 



United States 
Department of 
Agriculture 

Forest Service 

Northeastern 
Research Station 

Resource Bulletin NE-165 




West Virginia 
Timber Product 
Output, 2000 

Bruce Hansen 
Ed Murriner 
Iris Baker 
Melody Akers 



Abstract 



Assesses primary wood-processing in West Virginia for 2000. in 2000, West Virginia's 
total wood harvest for industrial uses was 202 million cubic feet, up nearly 22 percent 
from 1994. Sawlog production totaled 803.5 million board feet, a decrease of 8.1 million 
board feet from 1994. There were 172 sawmills operating in the State in 2000, with only 
10 percent accounting for more than half of West Virginia's lumber production. Fifty-seven 
mills accounted for 90 percent of the lumber produced. Oak accounted for 43 percent of the 
State's production followed by yellow-poplar at 23 percent. Pulpwood production totaled 
732,000 cords, an increase of 110 percent from 1994. 



The Authors 

BRUCE HANSEN is an economist and Project Leader with the Northeastern Research 
Station, Princeton, West Virginia. He joined the USDA Forest Service in 1968. 

ED MURRINER is an assistant state forester for resource inventory and sawmill assistance 
with the West Virginia Bureau of Commerce's Division of Forestry at Charleston. 

IRIS BAKER is a research forester with the Northeastern Research Station at Princeton, 
West Virginia. She joined the USDA Forest Service in 1995 

MELODY AKERS is a computer specialist with the Northeastern Research Station at 
Princeton, West Virginia. She joined the USDA Forest SePk/ice in 2001 . 



Manuscript received for publication 6 September 2005 



Published by: For additional copies: 

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January 2006 Fax: (740)368-01 52 



Visit our homepage at: http://www.fs.fed.us/ne 



Highlights 



• In 2000, the wood harvest for industrial uses in West Virginia totaled 202 million 
cubic feet, an increase of nearly 22 percent from 1994. However, this increase failed 
to match the 38-percent increase recorded from 1987 to 1994. 

• Sawlog production totaled 803.5 million board feet (MMbf), down slightly from 
the 811.6 MMbf recorded in 1994. 

• In 2000, 172 sawmills produced lumber in West Virginia. Only 10 percent of these 
mills accounted for more than half of the State's production. One-third of the mills 
accounted for 90 percent and one-half accounted for 97 percent. 

• Oak accounted for 43 percent of the sawlog harvest of the known species, down 
from 52 percent in 1994. Yellow-poplar accounted for 23 percent, up 2 percent from 
1994. 

• When production of sawlogs and veneer logs are combined, yellow-poplar accounted 
for nearly 33 percent of the total known species. 

• Pulpwood roundwood production in 2001 totaled 732,000 cords, an increase of 
110 percent from 1994.' However, pulpwood production from residue chips was 
down 54 percent from 1994. As a result, overall pulpwood production increased by 
nearly 30 percent in 2001 from 1994. The shift from residue chips to roundwood 
likely reflects expanded markets for mill residues. Also, there were more engineered 
wood product mills in operation in 2001 than in 1994. These mills tend to use 
roundwood exclusively. 



'In this report, pulpwood production figures are for 2001. 



1 



Introduction 

This is the most recent report summarizing roundwood 
production in West Virginia as part of the Timber 
Product Output (TPO) assessment carried out by the 
USDA Forest Service. The intent of TPO is to provide 
information to complement data collected by the Forest 
Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) unit. While 
FIA concentrates on providing information on growing 
stock and sawtimber inventories and removals, TPO 
determines which provide insights into what roundwood 
markets are accountable for removals by surveying 
primary forest industry about its roundwood receipts. 
The success of TPO in providing accurate, complete, 
and timely information on resource use depends on the 
cooperation of the industry. The survey for this report 
represents a complete canvass of the primary industry, 
though data on the overall number and size of the firms 
surveyed, species distribution, and residue amounts and 
their disposal are estimates due to the number of firms 
that did not return a completed questionnaire. 

The industries surveyed include sawmills (these typically 
produce grade lumber but also can produce pallet 
material, rail ties, and mine material), pulp and paper 
mills (includes receipts by engineered wood or composite 
mills, e.g., OSB,) veneer mills, and miscellaneous wood- 
product manufacturers. The latter typically include 
manufacturers of wood fences, posts, and poles. 

Product Breakdown 

Sawlogs accounted for nearly 61 percent of the wood 
receipts in West Virginia in 2000. Pulpwood received 
by in-state and out-of-state pulp and engineered wood 
product mills accounted for nearly 31 percent. Veneer 
logs accounted for about 2 percent and miscellaneous 
products about 7 percent (Fig. 1, Table 1). The product 
breakdown is based on cubic feet. (Figures 1 through 9 
and Tables 2 through 12 are in the Appendix.) 

Overall product output in 2000 was up more than 50 
percent from the level reported in 1965 (Fig. 2, Table 2), 
and more than double the low for the period recorded 
in 1979. The major factor leading to the overall increase 
was the amount of pulpwood produced relative to other 
product categories. In 2000, pulpwood accounted for 31 



percent of the State total. The largest share recorded for 
pulpwood prior to this was 20.5 percent in 1965 (Table 2). 

Regional Production 

West Virginia has historically been divided into three 
regions: northeastern, southern, and northwestern (Tables 
3-4). Since 1994, there seems to have been a relative shift 
in sawlog production shares from the northwestern to 
the northeastern region, while the southern region has 
remained nearly unchanged: 

Year Sawlog production (%) 

Northwestern Southern Northeastern 
1994 24 37 39 

2000 18 33 49 



It is important to note that the origin of more than 60 
percent of the 2000 volume total is unknown. This could 
well affect the current distribution. 

Sawlog Production 

Of the 172 sawmills operating in West Virginia in 2000 
(Table 5), 90 reported production of 1 MMbf or more 
while 82 reported production of less than 1 MMbf (Fig. 
3, Table 5). Twenty percent of the mills accounted for 
more than 70 percent of the production, 40 percent 
accounted for more than 90 percent, and half accounted 
for 97 percent (Fig. 4). 

West Virginia was a net exporter of sawlogs in 2000. 
Exports totaled 37 MMbf (Table 6) while imports were 
roughly 25.5 MMbf (Table 5). Exports accounted for 
about 4.6 percent of the State's total production. 

By export destination, Virginia led all other states in 
2000, accounting for 37 percent of the total. This was 
far different than in 1994 when Ohio led all other states, 
accounting for nearly 60 percent of the export total. 
Rounding out the top five in 2000 were Maryland, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky. 

It is difficult to gain a true measure of exports since they 
are imputed from data on mill receipts. An accurate 
accounting requires the cooperation of out-of-state mills. 
Differences between 1994 and 2000 may be due at least 



2 



partially to differences in the responses of out-of-state 
mills. Because Ohio has traditionally been the major 
importer of roundwood from West Virginia, all mills 
in Ohio are mailed questionnaires as part of the West 
Virginia survey. By contrast, surveys are mailed only to 
mills in Pennsylvania and Maryland that are within 50 
miles of the West Virginia border. No attempt is made to 
contact nonrespondents in any of the importing states. 

Data on West Virginia exports to mills outside of the 
13-state Northeast region (Virginia, Tennessee, etc.) are 
obtained from TPO assessments conducted in those 
states and provided to us. 

Of total sawlog production in West Virginia in 2000 
(803,519 Mbf), unknovi^n species accounted for 294,508 
Mbf or 37 percent. Of the remaining 509,0 11 Mbf, red 
oak accounted for 3 1 percent followed by yellow-poplar 
(23), white oak (17), hard maple (7), soft maple (5), and 
basswood (4) (Fig. 5, Table 7). The distribution of species 
by region is shown in Table 8. 

Pulpwood Production 

The combined use of pulpwood roundwood and 
manufacturing residue was a record 878,000 cords in 
2000. However, while roundwood use nearly doubled, 
manufacturing residue use was down by nearly 63 
percent from 1995. 

Since 1995, there seems to be a dramatic shift from the 
use of manufacturing residues toward roundwood on the 
part of pulp mills, but this could be due to several factors 
acting alone or in concert. First, it is generally agreed that 
new markets for mill residues may be affecting the supply 
of such residues to pulp mills (Fig. 6, Table 9). Also, 
several roundwood-only engineered wood product mills 
came on line during the latter part of the last decade. 
Wood use by these mills generally is of pulpwood type 
and is included with the pulpwood estimates. Thus, they 
likely have affected both the roundwood-to-residue ratio 
and species mix. 

It also may be that in previous reporting, chips from 
whole-tree chip operations and remote chip mills might 
have been recorded as manufacturing residue rather than 
as "roundwood." However, we took a narrower view of 



what constitutes manufacturing residue, confining it to 
sawdust and residue chips only. 

In its annual pulpwood statistical summary, the Forest 
Resource Association (FRA) identifies seven sources of 
material going to pulp mills that may provide insight into 
the apparent discrepancy (Jarvis 2002). These sources 
are: short-wood, long-wood, whole-tree chips debarked, 
whole-tree chips with bark, chips from remote chip mills, 
sawdust, and residue chips. 

According to FRA nationwide data for 2001, roundwood 
accounts for 49 percent of industry receipts, chips from 
roundwood and from chip mills, 24 percent, and mill 
waste (sawdust and residue chips), 27 percent. Thus, 
on the basis of roundwood versus all other, the ratio of 
roundwood to chips is 49:51. This division is similar to 
the ratio of 5 1 :49 roundwood to mill residues reported 
for 1995 by Widmann et al. (1998). But if we include 
chips from roundwood and remote chip mills with 
roundwood, leaving only sawdust and residue chips to 
represent manufacturing residues, the ratio between 
"roundwood" in all its forms and residues as reported 
by FRA is 73:27. This is similar to the 83-percent 
roundwood, 17-percent manufacturing residue split 
realized in our study (Fig. 6). Unfortunately, Widmann 
et al. did not break down their data into similar 
subcomponents to facilitate farther analysis. 

Regionally, FRA reported the use of sawdust and residue 
chips as generally ranging from 1 4 to 22 percent. There 
was one exception, the West, where residue chips and 
sawdust accounted for more than 7 1 percent of the 
material inputs. Within the Northeast region, defined 
by FRA as Maine, New York, New Hampshire, and 
Pennsylvania, the overall ratio of roundwood to residues 
was 78:22. Roundwood (and chips from roundwood) 
and chips from remote mills contributed 58 and 20 
percent, respectively. The rest (22 percent) was mill 
residues. 

In defense of a possible 50/50 mix between roundwood 
and manufacturing residue use, it must be pointed out 
that West Virginia's mountainous terrain limits whole- 
tree chip operations. In a separate inquiry aimed at this 
issue, one company drawing material from the State 



3 



Table 1. — ^Volume of industrial roundwood production, by product, 2000 

Product Standard Species Total 

unit 



Softwood Hardwood Unkn 



own 



Sawlogs 


Mbf 


5,145 


503,865 


294,508 


803,518 


Pulpwood^ 


Cords 


91,482 


640,625 




732,107 


Veneer 


Mbf 


- 


24,411 




24,411 


Miscellaneous 


Mft3 


1,072 


7,077 


5,537 


13,686 


Sawlogs 


Mft3 


767 


77,091 


44,471 


122,329 


i LULIJVVtJtJtl 


iVii 


7 11 








Veneer 


Mft3 




3,735 




3,735 


Miscellaneous 


Mft3 


1,072 


7,077 


5,537 


13,686 


Sawlogs 


Mm3 


28 


2,182 


1,259 


3,469 


Pulpwood^ 


Mm3 


220 


1,542 




1,762 


Veneer 


Mm3 




132 




132 


Miscellaneous 


Mm3 


38 


201 


196 


435 



" Pulpwood production figures are for 2001. 



reported that it procures 50-percent roundwood, 10- 
percent whole-tree chips from roundwood, and 40- 
percent manufacturing residue. However, if the mix in 
West Virginia is about 50/50 or even 60:40, then the 
State would seem to lie outside the regional norm with 
respect to residue use in the pulping process. 

In 1994, West Virginia softwoods made up about 20 
percent of the pulpwood material versus 80 percent for 
hardwoods (Widmann et al. 1998). However, in 2001, 
softwood use fell to about 12.5 percent of the total while 
hardwood use rose to 87.5 percent. This may be partially 
a result of a preference for yellow-poplar by engineered 
product mills and the relative abundance of this species 
in the forest inventory (Table 1). 

Veneer Log Production and Exports 

Veneer log production in 2000 was down from 1994, 
totaling nearly 43 MMbf Thirteen percent of this 
production went to markets outside West Virginia. In 
1994, most of the exported material went to Kentucky 
and North Carolina. White and red oak made up nearly 
83 percent of all exports; cherry accounted for more than 
7 percent (Tables 10-11). 



In 2000, veneer log production totaled nearly 21 MMbf 
All but 4 percent remained in the State. Pennsylvania and 
New York were the primary recipients, accounting for 
nearly 90 percent of all veneer log exports. Black cherry 
(72.9 percent) and hard maple (9.3 percent) accounted 
for more than 82 percent of the exported volume. 

Mill Residue 

Of the 172 firms surveyed, 64 supplied information 
about their production and disposition of one or more 
t}'pes of residue. The other 108 mills did not respond to 
the residue inquiry or did not provide production data. 
There were six residue types, including hardwood and 
softwood bark, coarse, and fine residues. 

However, when looking at a specific residue by type, 
response varies. For instance, 23 of the 64 respondents 
reported softwood production but only 7 of these mills 
provided information on how they dispose of softwood 
coarse residues. Does this mean that the remaining 16 
mills have no coarse residues to dispose of? Not likely. 

Likewise, 14 and 15 firms provided information on 
the disposition of softwood bark and fine residues. 



4 



respectively. Again, the number of respondents should 
have equaled the number of firms (23) reporting the 
receipt of softwood logs. 

All but one of the respondents reported the receipt of 
hardwood logs. Of the 64 firms, 5 1 reported on their 
disposal of hardwood bark and fine residues; 46 reported 
on their disposal of hardwood coarse residue. 

Percentages were computed for each of eight disposal 
options based on the usable response for each of the six 
types of residue. Volumes were estimated for each mill 
and then summed to provide a weighted average for each 
residue and disposal method. Estimates of total tons 
were derived for each residue on an industry basis using 
conversion factors developed some time ago for the State 
of Virginia (Appendix). 

On the basis of total production for West Virginia, 
the estimated amounts of softwood bark, coarse, and 
fine residues were 36, 72.5, and 32.3 million tons, 
respectively. The estimated amounts of hardwood bark, 



coarse, and fine residues were 723, 1,908, and 1,060 
million tons, respectively (Table 12). 

Figures 8-10 break down residue by species and 
type going to each disposal method as reported by 
respondents. It is important to note that the disposition 
of residues by mills that did not disclose their disposal 
method may be distinctly different from that of 
respondents. Also the residue volumes in Table 12 are 
estimated amounts generated rather than amounts used. 

Literature Cited 

Jarvis, Steve. 2002. Annual pulpwood statistics 

summary report 1997-2001. Rockville, MD: Forest 
Resources Association. 

Widmann, Richard; Wharton, Eric H.; Murriner, 
Edward C. 1998. West Virginia timber products 
output— 1994. Resour. Bull. NE-143. Radnor, PA: 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 
Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. 



Appendix 

Residue Conversion Factors 



Tons/Mbf. 



Note: Tons/cord = 2.5; ft3/cord = 85.0. 
Table 2. — Trends in timber products output, selected years, 1965 to 2000a 

Species Product 1965 1974 1979 1987 1994 2000 

Softwoods Sawlogs 3.6 2.9 3.0 1.0 2.6 0.8 

Pulpwood 8.7 4.3 2.5 5.9 5.6 7.8 
Veneer 

All other 0.9 AA 1^9 3^0 02 1.1 

Total 13.2 11^6 7A_ 9^9 8^4 9.7 

Hardwoods Sawlogs 80.9 69.3 62.1 85.1 121.5 77.1 

Pulpwood 18.4 13.9 8.2 17.2 24.0 54.5 

Veneer 0.8 0.5 1.3 1.2 6.5 3.7 

All other 18.7 1L3 10^2 6^2 4^9 7.1 

Total 118.8 95^0 8L8 109.7 156.9 142.4 

Total Sawlogs 84.5 72.2 65.1 86.1 124.1 122.3 

Pulpwood 27.1 18.2 10.7 23.1 29.6 62.3 

Veneer 0.8 0.5 1.3 1.2 6.5 3.7 

All other 19.6 157 12T 9^2 5T 13.7 

Total 132.0 106.6 89^2 119.6 165.3 202.0 

^ Includes 49.9 MMbf for which species is unknown. As a result, the sum of individual softwood and hardwood product 
totals for 2000 does not equal the overall total. 



6 



Table 3. — Industrial timber harvest, by geographic unit, species group and products, 2000 



Geographic unit Species group 



Sawlogs and 
veneer logs 



Pulpwood 



Other 



Total 



Northeastern 



Southern 



Northwestern 



Unknown 



Total 



Softwood 

Hardwood 

Unknown 

Total 

Softwood 
Hardwood 
Unknown 
Total 

Softwood 
Hardwood 
Unknown 
Total 

Softwood 
Hardwood 
Unknown 
Total 

Softwood 
Hardwood 

Unknown 
Total 



Thousand cubic feet 

218 2,724 308 

22,313 22,592 796 



22,531 



110 

22,612 



22,722 



44 
7,113 



7,157 



395 
28,804 
44,471 



73,670 



767 
80,842 
44,471 



126,080 



25,316 



233 
3,340 



3,573 



3,470 
7,004 



10,474 



1,349 
21,517 



22,866 



7,776 
54,453 



62,229 



1,104 



553 
5,311 



5,864 



35 
149 



184 



175 
822 
5,537 



6,534 



1,071 
7,078 
5,537 



13,686 



3,250 
45,701 



48,951 



896 
31,263 



32,159 



3,549 
14,266 



17,815 



1,643 
48,246 
53,181 



103,070 



9,614 
142,373 
50,008 



201,995 



Table 4. — Sawlog production and consumption by geographic unit, selected years, 1965 to 2000 



Geographic unit 1965 1974 1979 1987 1994 2000 

Thousand board feet 

Production 



Northeastern 


201.3 


186.1 


187.6 


239.2 


323.3 


118.5 


Southern 


227.4 


199.4 


168.7 


228.9 


294.9 


148.2 


Northwestern 


62.0 


78.2 


61.0 


94.7 


193.4 


38.8 


Unknown 












497.9 


Total 


490.7 


463.7 


417.3 


562.8 


811.6 


803.4 



Consumption 

Northeastern 203.0 194.8 172.4 236.3 357.6 353.1 

Southern 227.4 187.9 154.7 210.0 256.5 305.4 

Northwestern 55.0 64.6 41.9 88.7 111.6 134.1 

Unknown 



Total 485.4 447.3 369.0 535.0 725.7 792.6 



Table 5. — Number of operating sawmills, selected years, 1965 to 2000 



Year 


Mills 


with: 


Total number of mills 




1 MMbf or more 


Less than 1 MMbf 






production 


production 




1965 


94 


172 


266 


1974 


90 


137 


227 


1979 


77 


124 


201 


1987 


111 


53 


164 


1994 


113 


64 


177 


2000 


90 


82 


172 



Table 6. — Production of sawlogs by species and destination of shipments, 2000 

Species Retained Total Total 

in state exports production 

Exported to: 

KY MD OH PA VA 



Thousand board feet- 



/\sn 


1 1 r^nv 


7 

/ 


747 


7^ 


91 

Z. i 




7^4 


1 7 ^41 


Basswood 


i 0, 1 / u 




1 78 

I/O 


J 






477 


1 8 ^^07 




4 441 














4 S^l 


Birch 


1,478 




16 




10 




26 


1,504 


Cherry 


16,513 




1,245 


111 


836 




2,298 


18,811 


Elm 


574 




15 








15 


589 


Gum 


821 


8 


2 




10 




20 


841 


Hickory 


12,852 


57 


27 


26 


67 


528 


705 


13,557 


Soft maple 


23,464 


36 


560 


67 


655 


245 


1,563 


25,027 


Hard maple 


31,711 


4 


499 


201 


613 


545 


1,862 


33,573 


White oak 


















Select 


31,572 




36 


263 


653 




952 


32,524 


Other 


50,700 


302 


1,218 


229 


94 


2,799 


4,642 


55,342 


Red oak 


















Select 


68,311 




120 


422 


2,634 




3,176 


71,487 


Other 


78,926 


455 


2,672 


305 


114 


4,378 


7,924 


86,850 


Walnut 


1,540 




3 


8 


34 




45 


1,585 


Yellow- 


















poplar 


109,790 


522 


2,229 


328 


1,342 


3,798 


8,219 


118,009 


Other 


















Hardwoods 


6,328 


112 




2,141 




117 


2,370 


8,698 


Softwoods 


3,241 




6 


46 




1,851 


1,903 


5,144 


Unknown 


294,508 














294,508 


Total 


766,547 


1,503 


9,098 


4,344 


7,379 


14,647 


36,971 


803,518 



8 



Table 7. — Consumption of sawlogs and source of shipments, 2000 



Total imports Total 

consumption 

Source state: 
MD PA VA 



Thousand board feet- 



Ash 


11,607 


73 


168 


200 


441 


12,048 


Basswood 


18,170 


3 


266 


169 


438 


18,608 


Beech 


4,441 






6 


6 


4,447 


Birch 


1,478 


- 


530 


~ 


530 


2,008 


Cherry 


16,513 


1,140 




274 


1,414 


17,927 


Elm 


574 


7 


21 


7 


35 


609 


Gum 


821 


~ 


~ 


~ 


~ 


821 


Hickory 


12,852 


274 


137 


247 


658 


13,510 


Soft maple 


23,491 


291 


365 


259 


915 


24,406 


Hard maple 


31,711 


220 


353 


551 


1,124 


32,835 


White oak 














Select 


31,572 


2,760 


2,155 


2,527 


7,442 


39,014 


Other 


50,700 


20 


40 


907 


967 


51,667 


Red oak 














Select 


68,311 


2,288 


2,720 


1,759 


6,767 


75,078 


Other 


78,926 




- 


1,072 


1,072 


79,998 


Walnut 


1,540 






55 


55 


1,595 


Yellow- 














poplar 


109,790 


429 


1,377 


989 


2,795 


112,585 


Other 














Hardwoods 


6,301 


208 


244 


206 


658 


6,959 


Softwoods 


3,241 


55 


27 


139 


221 


3,462 


Unknown 


294,508 










294,508 


Total 


766,547 


7,768 


8,403 


9,367 


25,538 


792,085 



Species Retained in 

state 



9 



Table 8. — Production of sawlogs by species and geographic unit, 2000 



Species 



Northeastern 



Southern 



Northwestern 



Unknown 



Total 



Ash 

Basswood 

Beech 

Birch 

Cherry 

Elm 

Gum 

Hickory 

Soft maple 

Hard maple 

White oak 

Select 

Other 
Red oak 

Select 

Other 

Walnut 

Yellow- 
poplar 

Other 
Hardwoods 
Softwoods 
Unknown 

Total 



3,004 
4,866 
2,751 
856 
7,287 
304 
373 
2,377 
10,709 
9,362 

6,236 
5,628 

20,612 
10,387 
698 

29,423 

2,205 
1,469 

118,547 



4,333 
8,560 
426 
115 
4,550 
7 
72 
2,497 
7,921 
13,908 

9,066 
11,441 

29,022 
19,600 
362 

34,559 

985 
733 

148,157 



• Thousand board feet- 
1,072 
532 
198 
10 
1,280 
5 

16 
589 
1,433 
2,156 

4,560 
3,961 

7,584 
4,451 
259 

9,594 

892 
246 

38,838 



3,932 
4,639 
1,156 
523 
5,695 
274 
383 
8,093 
4,990 
8,148 

12,663 
34,312 

14,269 
52,412 
266 

44,433 

4,588 
2,697 
294,508 
497,981 



12,341 
18,597 
4,531 
1,504 
18,812 
590 
844 
13,556 
25,053 
33,574 

32,525 
55,342 

71,487 
86,850 
1,585 

118,009 

8,670 
5,145 
294,508 
803,523 



10 



Table 9. — Production of pulpwood from roundwood and manufacturing residue, 1965 to 2001 



Year Pulpwood source Total 

Roundwood Manufacturing residue 
Thousand cords 

1965 319.3 92.4 411.7 

1966 289.9 76.4 366.3 

1967 333.3 117.4 450.7 

1968 288.1 119.4 407.5 

1969 279.7 149.4 429.1 

1970 . 225.8 129.3 355.1 

1971 228.2 112.2 340.4 

1972 190.3 145.0 335.3 

1973 258.2 158.9 417.1 

1974 213.6 198.5 412.1 

1975 272.0 , 135.7 407.7 

1976 213.2 149.1 362.3 

1978 185.9 158.1 344.0 

1979 158.5 119.3 277.8 

1980 126.2 164.3 290.5 

1981 235.2 186.3 447.3 

1982 271.5 156.3 391.5 

1983 246.6 186.1 457.6 

1984 244.5 142.8 389.4 

1985 218.1 174.5 392.6 

1986 231.0 216.4 447.4 

1987 272.0 286.4 558.4 

1988 279.8 434.9 714.7 

1989 313.2 296.7 609.9 

1990 339.4 237.1 576.5 

1991 313.0 267.2 580.2 

1992 340.4 355.6 696.0 

1993 385.2 310.3 695.5 

1994 348.3. 334.1 682.4 

1995 372.3 393.0 757.7 

2001 732.1 145.9 878.0 



11 



Table 10. — ^Veneer log production and exports, by species, 2000 



Species 



Harvested 
and used in 
state 



Exported to: 



KY 



NC 



VA 



Total Total 
exported production 



- Thousand board feet- 



Ash 


61 


106 


122 


37 


265 


326 


Cherry 


1,220 










1,220 


Walnut 


61 






" 




61 


T T* 1 

Hickory 






122 


18 


140 


140 


T T 1 1 

Hard maple 


61 




183 


247 


430 


491 


Red oak 


122 


750 


403 


59 


1,212 


1,334 


White oak 






244 


414 


658 


658 


Yellow- 














poplar 


19,247 






1 


1 


19,248 


Other 














Hardwoods 




25 


378 


530 


933 


933 


Softwoods 














Total 


20,772 


881 


1,452 


1,306 


3,639 


24,411 



Table 11. — ^Veneer log production and receipts, selected years, 1963-2000 



Year Production Receipts 
MMbf International 



1963 


7.0 


6.3 


1965 


4.6 


6.4 


1968 


7.9 


8.7 


1972 


4.3 


6.1 


1974 


3.2 


4.3 


1976 


3.6 


3.9 


1979 


8.5 


23.0 


1980 


7.5 


23.4 


1984 


3.9 


a 


1987 


7.6 


a 


1994 


42.7 


44.7 


2000 


24.4 


3.8 



a Withheld to avoid individual disclosure. 



12 



Table 12. — Estimates of hardwood and softwood bark, coarse, and fine residues 
generated (not necessarily used or sold) by West Virginia primary processors, 2000 



Residue 



Product type 


Species 


Bark 


Coarse 


Fine 








JThousund tons 














Sawlogs 


Hardwood 


A/ir\ 7. 




Q^A Q 




oortwooa 


J.J 


ij. 1 


O.O 




Total 


443.6 


1,401.5 


863.4 


Veneer logs 


Hardwood 


1.J.J 


Z 1 .0 


i 1 .z 




Softwood 










Total 


13.5 


21.8 


11.2 


1 ulpwood 


Hardwood 


11 ^ 1 








Softwood 


if^ 








Total 


247.8 


— 


— 


• 

Miscellaneous 


Hardwood 


4o.4 








oorLWoou. 


o.z 


jy-J 


jLJ.O 




Total 


54.6 


556.8 


218.3 


All types 


Hardwood 


723.3 


1,907.7 


1,060.5 




Softwood 


36.0 


72.5 


32.3 




Total 


759.3 


1,980.2 


1,092.8 



Miscellanous 

7% 



Pulpwood 
31% 




Veneer logs 
2% 




Sawlogs 
60% 



Figure 1. — Product composition of roundwood harvest based on cubic feet, 2000. 



c 

0) 

u 

k. 

a> 
Q. 
0) 

> 

I 

3 

E 

3 

o 



100% 
80% 
60% 
40% 
20% 
0% 



□ 



1994 



2000 



□ Northw estern 
■ Southern 



24% 



37% 



18% 
33% 



Northeast 



39% 



49% 



Figure 2. — Product production trends in West Virginia, selected years, 1965-2000. 



(0 
O 
> 



2000 
1994 
1987 
1979 
1974 
1965 



m <1 million 
<■ >1 million 



90 



113 



111 



77 













94 ■ 



Number of Mills 



Figure 3. — Sawmills in West Virginia with production above and below 1 million board feet. 



14 



Auction 

D -vj 00 CD O 
D O O O O 














♦ ♦ ♦ ' ' 

♦ 






♦ 








* 

♦ 


















o 

t 50 
■£ 40 

a 30 


♦ — 










♦ 










♦ 










°- 20 - 
10 


♦ 










♦ 










< 












C 


) 20 40 60 80 100 
Percent of Mills 



Figure 4. — Cumulative production curve for West Virginia sawmills, 2000. 



Beech 
Ash 
Hickory 
Basswood 
Black cherry 
Red maple 
Chestnut oak 
Sugar maple 
White oak 
Northern red oak 
Other red oaks 
Yellow-poplar 



1 2000 
11994 



10 15 20 

Percent 



25 



30 



Figure 5. — Sawlog production in West Virginia, percent of total, 1994 and 2000. 



900 




1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 2001 

Year 



Figure 6. — Roundwood (includes roundwood, chips from roundwood, and 
chips from chip mills) and manufacturing residue (includes residue chips 
and sawdust) used in pulp production, 1990-1995 and 2001. 



Hardwood Bark 




Softwood Bark 




16 



Hardwood Coarse 



Fiber products 

11% 




Softwood Coarse 

Not used 

30/g Miscellaneous 

1% 




Other 

3% 



Fiber products 
93% 



Fibure 8. — Disposition of hardwood (n=46) and softwood (n=7) coarse residue, by use, 2000. 



Hardwood Fine 




Industrial fuel 
45% 



Softwood Fine 

Miscellaneous Other 




Figure 9. — Disposition of liardwood (n=51) and softwood (n=15) fine residue, by use, 2000. 



18 



Hansen, Bruce; Murriner, Ed; Baker, Iris; Akers, Melody. 2006. West Virginia 
timber product output, 2000. Resour. Bull. NE-165. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station 18 p. 

Assesses primary wood-processing activities in West Virginia for 2000. West 
Virginia's total wood harvest for industrial uses was 202 million cubic feet, up 
nearly 22 percent from 1994. Sawlog production totaled 803.5 million board feet, a 
decrease of 8.1 million board feet from 1994. There were 172 sawmills operating 
in the State in 2000, with only 10 percent accounting for more than half of West 
Virginia's lumber production. Fifty-seven mills accounted for 90 percent of the 
lumber produced. Oak accounted for 43 percent of the State's production, followed 
by yellow-poplar at 23 percent. Pulpwood production totaled 732,000 cords, an 
increase of 110 percent from 1994. 

Keywords: Roundwood production, roundwood consumption, mill receipts, primary 
processing, sawlogs, veneer logs, pulpwood, engineered wood products 



09k 

^^^^ Printed on Recycled Paper 




Headquarters of the Northeastern Research Station is in Newtown Square, 
Pennsylvania. Field laboratories are maintained at: 

Amherst, Massachusetts, in cooperation with the University of Massachusetts 
Burlington, Vermont, in cooperation with the University of Vermont 
Delaware, Ohio 

Durham, New Hampshire, in cooperation with the University of New Hampshire 
Hamden, Connecticut, in cooperation with Yale University 
Morgantown, West Virginia, In cooperation with West Virginia University 
Parsons, West Virginia 
Princeton, West Virginia 

Syracuse, New York, in cooperation with the State University of New York, 
College of Environmental Sciences and Forestry at Syracuse University 

Warren, Pennsylvania 



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